How to Learn Japanese Grammar: 11 Important Topics You Should Know


For people who are trying to learn Japanese for the first time might find that learning the Japanese grammar is a little bit difficult. With its unique structure and rules, it is quite different from the grammar rules of English and Western languages. However, a lot of people think that Japanese language has the same structure.

Mastering the basics of Japanese grammar is really important for building a strong foundation in the language. In this article, we will explain the basics of Japanese grammar from simple sentence structures to verb conjugations. We hope this will help you to learn Japanese!


Japanese is a wonderful language with a rich cultural history, and mastering its grammar is essential for good communication with native Japanese speakers. While it might seem difficult at first, mastering the basics of Japanese language can be very exciting. Japanese grammar, with its unique sentence patterns and word order, could help you in developing a new way of thinking and communicating.

Read more articles about Japanese language and Japan.

Why Should You Learn the Basics of Grammar to Learn Japanese?

Learning the basics of Japanese grammar is important for several reasons. Firstly, it helps you to understand the logic of Japanese and get used to sentence structure. Without learning basic grammar logic, it might get complicated in the future. Also it helps you to communicate effectively in both written and spoken language. Without proper grammar, your Japanese may be difficult to understand, which can cause confusion and frustration.

Secondly, Japanese grammar plays a significant role in expressing politeness and respect. Japanese has a hierarchical structure that determines how people speak to each other. Therefore, learning the correct grammar and vocabulary is essential to convey the appropriate level of respect and formality. For this, you should start with the basics.

Lastly, learning Japanese grammar can open up a whole new world of literature and media. Japanese literature is renowned worldwide, and understanding the grammar will enable you to read Japanese books, watch Japanese anime, films, series and TV shows, also appreciate Japanese music.

Here is our article about how you can learn Hiragana

Our Hiragana practice sheet for beginners


Understanding Japanese Sentence Structures

The basic sentence structure of Japanese is subject-object-verb (SOV), which is different from English’s subject-verb-object (SVO) structure. Therefore, it is essential to understand the basic sentence structures of Japanese.

For example, the sentence “I like sushi” would be written as 私は寿司が好きです “Watashi wa sushi ga suki desu” in Japanese. In this sentence, 私 “watashi” is the subject, 寿司 “sushi” is the object, and 好きです “suki desu” is the verb. So, the order is Subject-Object-Verb.

1- Japanese Particles

Particles are small words that indicate the grammatical function of a word in a sentence. Japanese has several particles, and learning them is essential for understanding the meaning of a sentence.

For example, the particle は “wa” is used to indicate the subject of a sentence, while the particle が “ga” indicates the object. The particle を “wo” is used to indicate the direct object of a sentence, and the particle に “ni” is used to indicate the destination or purpose of an action.

In this article we won’t explain everything so detailed. The purpose of this article is to give you a perspective of Japanese grammar and prepare you to what you will be faced in the future of your Japanese adventure. We will add links to the below of every topic in this article after we write detailed articles about them.

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2- Japanese Verb Conjugation

Japanese verb conjugation is relatively simple compared to other languages, such as French or Spanish. In Japanese, verbs do not change according to the tense or subject, but instead, they are modified by adding different verb endings.

For instance, the present tense of the verb “to eat” is 食べる “taberu,” while the past tense is 食べた “tabeta.” Similarly, the negative form of the verb is 食べない “tabenai,” and the polite form is 食べます “tabemasu.”

3- Japanese Adjectives

Japanese adjectives are words which can describe or modify nouns. They come in two types: i-adjectives and na-adjectives. I-adjectives end in -i and can be used to describe both animate and inanimate objects. Na-adjectives, on the other hand, end in -na and are used to describe only animate objects. Adjectives in Japanese come before the noun they modify, and their form changes depending on the tense and formality of the sentence. Unlike English adjectives, Japanese adjectives are placed before the noun they describe.

4- Japanese Adverbs

In Japanese grammar, adverbs are words that modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. They describe how an action is performed, the degree of an adjective, or the frequency of an event. Some common Japanese adverbs include あまり (amari) meaning “not much” or “not very,” ゆっくり (yukkuri) meaning “slowly,” and たくさん (takusan) meaning “a lot” or “many.”


5- Japanese Nouns

Words that refer to persons, places, things, or ideas are known as nouns. In Japanese, nouns are typically placed before particles to indicate their grammatical function. For example, the noun 本 “hon,” meaning “book,” can be used in the sentence 私は本を読みます “watashi wa hon o yomimasu,” meaning “I read books.”

6- Japanese Counting System

The Japanese counting system is unique and can be challenging to learn. Unlike English, where the same numbers are used for all objects, Japanese has different counters for different objects. For instance, the counter “hitori” is used for counting people, while the counter “mai” is used for counting flat objects such as paper.

7- Japanese Pronouns

Pronouns are words that refer to a person or thing without using their name. In Japanese, there are several pronouns, and the choice of the appropriate one depends on the social context.

For example, the pronoun 私 “watashi” is commonly used by both men and women, while 僕 “boku” is typically used by young men. You can use the pronoun あなた “anata” is used to address someone, and 君 “kimi” for more casual. But I don’t recommend to use anata. If you use the person’s name, it is the best way.

8- Japanese Conjunctions

Conjunctions are words that connect phrases or clauses. In Japanese, conjunctions can be used to express a variety of relationships, such as cause and effect or contrast. For instance, the conjunction から “kara” is used to indicate the reason for an action, while でも “demo” is used to indicate a contrast. I think it is really fun to learn Japanese conjunctions.


9- Japanese Interjections

Interjections are words that express strong emotions or reactions. In Japanese, there are several interjections, and their use depends on the context and social norms. For example, the interjection “matta” is used to indicate anticipation or excitement, while “shoganai” is used to express resignation or acceptance of a situation.

10- Complex Japanese Sentence Structures

Japanese has a variety of complex sentence structures that can be challenging to learn. For instance, the relative clause, which modifies a noun in a sentence, is often used in Japanese. Additionally, Japanese has several sentence-ending particles, which can change the meaning of a sentence depending on the particle used like よ “yo.”

11- Japanese Honorific Language

Japanese has a complex honorific system that is used to show respect and politeness. The honorific language is used in formal situations, such as business meetings or interactions with elders. For example, the honorific prefix “o” is used to show respect, while the honorific suffix “san” is used to address someone politely. It is really important to learn honorific system in Japanese grammar.

Common Mistakes to Avoid

Learning Japanese grammar can be challenging, and there are several common mistakes to avoid. For instance, using the wrong particle can change the meaning of a sentence. Additionally, it is essential to use the correct form of verbs and adjectives, as using the wrong form can make the sentence sound awkward or incorrect.

We listed 10 Common Mistakes You Should Know while learning Japanese.



In conclusion, learning basic grammar in Japanese is crucial for building a strong foundation in the language. By understanding the sentence structures, particles, verb conjugation, adjectives, adverbs, nouns, counting system, pronouns, conjunctions, interjections, complex sentence structures, and honorific language, you can communicate effectively and convey the appropriate level of respect and formality.


Is Japanese grammar difficult to learn?

While Japanese grammar may be quite different from English, with practice and patience, it can be mastered with a good motivation and determination.

What are some tips for learning Japanese grammar?

Start with simple sentence structures and verb conjugations and gradually move on to more complex concepts. Practice regularly and seek feedback from native speakers or tutors.

Are there any online resources for learning Japanese grammar?

Yes, there are many online resources available, such as textbooks, grammar guides, and language-learning apps. Some popular options include Duolingo, Rosetta Stone, and Genki.

How important is grammar in Japanese language learning?

Grammar is crucial in Japanese language learning, as it forms the foundation for effective communication. Without a solid understanding of grammar, it can be challenging to convey your thoughts and ideas accurately.

Is honorific language necessary to learn in Japanese?

Yes, honorific language is an essential aspect of Japanese communication, especially in formal settings. Learning honorific language shows respect and politeness, and can help to build strong relationships with Japanese speakers.


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